How much money do we need for protected areas?

Amount needed annually for terrestrial PAs (Protected Areas) in non-OECD countries.


Source: Aaron Bruner, How Much Will Effective Protected Area Systems Cost? Conservation International, 2003.

Of course, there is considerable regional variation in funding shortfalls.


Regional variation in the percentage of the overall cost of effective reserve networks that are met.

Source: Balmford et al. Global variation in terrestrial conservation costs, conservation benefits, and unment conservation needs. PNAS, February 4, 2003,vol. 100 no. 3, 1046-1050.

And what would it cost to establish a set of effective Marine Protected Areas?


Total estimated running costs of MPA systems covering 1–40% of the world’s seas, according to four different models of system expansion. The shaded area denotes recent estimates of global subsidies to industrial fisheries (see text), whereas the vertical dashed lines show the MPA coverage recently recommended by the World Parks Congress…

A global MPA network covering 20–30% of the seas and costing $5–19 billion per year to run would require we increase our present areal and financial investment in marine conservation by around two orders of magnitude…

Most significantly, an ambitious program of MPA expansion could probably be instituted for less than the amount already spent by developed world governments on harmful subsidies to industrial fisheries. These subsidies currently run at between $15 and $30 billion each year…

Source: Balmford et al. The worldwide costs of marine protected areas. PNAS, June 29, 2004, vol. 101 no. 26, 9694-9697.


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